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The nature of the Glass Staining.

Glass CorrosionDid you ever know that glass is not completely smooth. Under a microscope glass reveals a rougher surface made of peaks and potholes. Organic and inorganic contaminants often carried by water fill those potholes and react chemically with the glass, firmly bonding to its surface. As a result, glass easily becomes stained and discolored. 

When glass is new those potholes are so small that even settled contaminants are not visible. But overtime glass exposed to water or intensive mechanical cleaning becomes even more rough and potholes can accomodate much more deposits. That process of glass  deterioration is also called glass corrosion. To conclude, there are two factors affecting glass staining: glass corrosion and exposure of contaminants dissolved in water.


RayAccess, Inc. are experts in Glass Stains Removal. There are different types of stains that can appear on glass. Here are the most common:

a. Hard water stains 

b. Glass Oxidation

c. Chemical damage (as acid or alkali etching)


hard water stainsHard Water Stains are the most common type of glass damage. They can appear as grey or white hazy stains with shape of water drips.  Basically, Hard Water stains are result of glass corrosion due constant exposure by water and concentration of inorganic compounds dissolved in water (TDS). In regular water there are hundreds of different ions of dissolved materials, the most of them are calcium (Ca+2), chloride (Cl-), magnesium (Mg+2), sodium (Na+), sulfate (SO4-2).   Solids dissolved in water literally stuck in rough surface of the glass and react chemically bonding with the glass. The result of those chemical reactions are insoluble compounds that can be removed only mechanically or chemically.

The most common areas of Hard Water Stains are shower doors, windows located near irrigation sprinkler or areas of constant water dripping (for example, under the defected flashing or gutter joint). In rainy season water running down the building can also cause hard water stains carrying excessive amount of dissolved materials from stucco, concrete and so on.

How to avoid Hard Water staining

There are two ways to avoid Hard water stains appearance.

a. Stop glass corrosion by eliminating the water exposure if possible. For example, redirecting or improving irrigation system around a building.

b. Protect the glass from corrosion by applying sealer on the glass surface. Most of the glass sealers can provide 1-2 years protection depending on sun and water exposure, and then need to be reapplied. Important: often glass needs to be cleaned from Hard water stains before sealer application.


Glass OxidationGlass Oxidation occurs when metal screens or frames around windows are exposed to rain or humidity and deteriorate causing oxidation. These products of oxidation run down the windows and penetrates or cling with the glass. It's appeared as almost clear to grey hazy staining right below frames or metal elements on exterior of a building. 

Glass and Metal Protection with special sealers can significantly reduce probability of oxidation.




Agressive chemicals contained acid or alkali can significantly speed up cleaning procedures of the glass but the same time they can make even more damage. Those chemicals react actively not only with contaminants but also with the glass causing intensive glass corrosion with staining called etching. Etching goes much deeper in glass structure comparing with hard water stains and oxidation. Therefore, removal of etching requires deep glass restoration pretty similar with Glass Scratches Removal. Etching looks as hazy stain reflecting area of chemical application. 

In most cases chemical damage is happened during attempts to use acid or alkali to remove hard water stains, oxidation, construction contaminants or in routine cleaning. Frankly, acid or alkali solutions are acceptable on some type of clear tempered glass, but in most cases are not. At least preliminary test in hidden area should be implemented before using of agressive chemical.


In common classification there are 2 stages of severity of glass stains. Actually those stages are more about glass corrosion then stains. Because then deeper corrosion in the glass structure then more severe glass stain and then more difficult to restore glass to original clarity. Glass stain (corrosion) close to the surface is Stage 1, deeper in glass structure is Stage 2.

Next test can be applied to recognize stage of glass staining. Make stain area wet, if you still can see stain on a wet glass most likely this is Stage 2, if not it's Stage 1. 

Efficiency of stain removal process depends not only on depth of the corrosion but also on what kind of chemical reactions and bonds created between contaminant and glass. Therefore, even if it's Stage 1 corrosion, removal trial should be applied on small and the most exposed area to understand how efficient would be glass restoration.


There are two methods to remove glass staining and restore original clarity of glass.

chemical removalMethod 1: Chemical removal

Chemical removal is based on idea of dissolving contaminants and their bonds with glass by more agressive chemical reagent as acid or alkali.

Advantages: It is the fastest and less expensive way to remove Stage 1 staining.

Disadvantages: Chemical Removal is very risky with high probability to etch the glass and increase corrosion. Chemical removal works with certain types of clear glass and certain type of stain. After dissolution of contaminant deposits there is still the same corroded glass with deep potholes. So, glass must be protected with sealer. Otherwise, hard water stains or oxidation will reoccur in short time. Also, there is certain potential damage to environment by application of agressive chemicals. It can be hazardous for operator if he doesn't wear proper personal protective equipment.

Method 2: Glass Polishing

glass polishingGlass polishing allows to mechanically remove contaminants and flatten back glass surface.

Advantages: Glass Polishing works perfectly with any type of glass and the most of Stage 1 and 2 staining. The result is polished and flattened glass surface that significantly reduce possibility of stain reappearance. Glass polishing also can remove small glass imperfections and chemical etching.

Disadvantages: Glass Polishing is more time consuming and expensive then Chemical Removal. Restoration process requires application of special equipment like buffer with adjustable RPM, polishing pads and polishing compound, pads for corners and etc. Glass Polishing requires special skills and experience in glass restoration due possibility to scratch or mechanically damage the glass. Glass protection by sealer is also recommended. 

However, if glass corrosion is so deep that even Glass Polishing can not remove the stain. There is also Glass Abrasion method mostly utilized for scratches and glass imperfections removal by resurfacing the glass. See also  Glass Restoration for more information about Glass Abrasion.


RayAccess, Inc. specializes at glass restoration and stains removal. Our experience and equipment allow us to achieve great results with reasonable price. We work with any size of project from apartment to multistories office building.

Call us (323)715-8267 or email at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. for a Free Estimation.


Last Updated on Monday, 17 June 2013 22:27

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Remote areas

Last Updated on Saturday, 06 April 2013 20:35

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Glass Scratch Removal Service

RayAccess, Inc. provides professional Glass Scratch RemovalGlass Scratch Removal Service. Our experience and proven technology allow us to remove glass dents, scaffs, scratches, graffity without any visible effects. Removal of some deep damages can leave slight distortion that is almost invisible.

To know more about Types of Glass Damages: click here


In average Glass Scratch Removal costs about 20-30% of glass pane replacement. Plus it takes 5-10 times less time depending on size of a pane and damage. So it helps you to save money and time with having absolutly same result.


We utilize proven and certified GForce by GlassWeld system for glass damage removal.

The Process of Glass Scratch Removal 

There are two ways of glass scratch removal: glass polishing and glass abrasion. Glass Polishing is a mechanical polishing by utilizing of special compound, polishing pads, heat on the glass by rotation of disc and cooling by spraying water. Glass polishing is very effective for removal of minor and medium scratches without any distortion.

Glass Abrasion is a process of glass surface abrading till scratch bottom will be reached. After achieving of desired result it’s necessary to make Glass Clearance with special clering compound and clearing disc. Glass abrasion of heavy and extreme damage can cause distortion on the glass in repaired area.


Approximate price range: 

$70-$420/pane depending on size and type of damage.


We serve Marina del Rey, Venice, Santa Monica, Culver City, Malibu, Pacific Palisades, Beverly Hills, Playa del Rey, El Segundo, Manhattan Beach.


We will be glad to provide you with a Free and Fast Estimation and a Great Service!

Call us (323) 715-8267 or email at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 05 February 2014 00:02

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Caulking and Waterproofing

Caulking is application of flexible sealing compounds to close up joints and gaps in building and other structures to provide thermal insulation, control water penetration and noise mitigation. Dependently of joints and task we utilize diverse technologies and materials (such as silicone, polyurethane, polysulfide) to provide high-quality solutions. If joints or gaps are wide we fill it with plastic foam, foam rolls (baker rod) or foaming.
We provide caulking (waterproofing) service both for residential (houses, condo, apartments) and for commercial buildings. Despite on rain rarity in Los Angeles area leaking can cause many issues such as mold, efflorescence, paint and coating deterioration, damage of furniture, electric devices and even short circuit. So it's better prevent leaking when the first warnings will appear. Thermal insulation is very important as well. Especially for buildings which use air cooling and heating systems to provide micro climate inside. Open gaps and joints cause air leaking that affect on electricity consuming, excessive wear of cooling (heating) systems and bills. 
The first and foremost it's necessary to recognize cause of leaking. When it is impossible to recognize the problem during the estimation, we provide visual inspection of exterior buildings. Build on inspection results we can provide solution for leaking elimination. However leaking can be caused by combination of factors. Therefore we provide 12 month warranty on our job, in case if leaking will appear again.
The most often leaking is caused by next factors

  • absence or damaged insulation on joints (junctions, seams, gaps) on the walls, architectural elements,  roof and etc.
  • defects in roof insulation materials such as flaws and raveling;
  • rusted or damaged flashing, sheet metal covers, bars;
  • excessive penetration of wall surface;
  • clogged water drain or gutter and other. 

Waterproofing is application of special hydrophobic coatings and liquid sealants to provide water-resistant quality for exterior of buildings (natural and artificial stones, masonry, stucco). Waterproofing prevents water penetration inside of material by the creating invisible water-resistant and vapor-permeable film. This technology helps to protect material from premature deterioration, molding, decolorization and efflorescence appearance.
RayAccess specializes on hard-to-reach and remote areas therefore we can provide the safest access and job conducting. We utilizes diverse techniques for safe access to the inspection spot such as ladders, aerial platforms and Rope Access techniques.   
Caulking (waterproofing) is a complex process which required special knowledge of materials, tools, technology and experience. Our experience is based on more than 5 years of leaking inspection and caulking services in rainy Europe. 
RayAccess caulking (waterproof) approximately prices:

Type of work Unit of measurements Price per unit (from.. To...)
Visual inspection (regular access, ladder) operation $60-$90
Visual inspection (Rope Access) operation     $120-$280
Cleaning, degreasing of joints (seams, junctions) lin.ft.      $3-5$
Caulking of joints (baker rod+sealant) lin.ft.      $5-$10
Caulking of joints (sealant) lin.ft.      $4-$8
Caulking of window perimeter (silicone) with taping lin.ft.      $4-$8
Foaming operation      $10-$35
Stucco, brick, stone waterproofing sq.ft. $2-$5
  • All expenses and taxes are included.

Last Updated on Thursday, 11 April 2013 21:43

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Façade is the exterior side of any building or structure. It can be made from different materials such as stucco, brick masonry, stainless steel, aluminum panels, vinyl siding, or natural stone (limestone, granite, marble, travertine).

 Why should you keep the exterior of your property in good condition?

First, overtime dust and air contamination can settle on the surface, affecting the original color, and leaving dirty run-off marks and stains. It’s probably not the best representation of your neighborhood, especially if you want to invite guests, tenants or potential buyers to your property.

Second, in the long run dust and air pollution can cause irremovable staining on the building exterior and significantly restrict vapor permeability, which can negatively affect the integrity of the material, and lead to cracking and the appearance of mold. 

Third, dust and residual air pollutants that have settled on the exterior of your home can cause allergic reactions and other possible health problems.

The solution is to have building’s exterior cleaned at least 1-2 times a year. Then closer you live to city environment, construction, major roads or industrial facilities then more often exterior your property needs to be cleaned. 


Dust can be anything from small particles of material, to pollen, sand or soil that have been brought in by wind, cars or construction processes. Dust settles on the surface evenly, but after rain or high moisture days it appears in dirty run-offs under ledges, windows, and frames. It also dims the original color of the exterior.

Air pollution results in a thin layer of dirt and grime on the exterior surfaces of buildings and can be caused by exhaust from cars in heavy traffic areas or soot from factories in areas of industry. 

Oxidation or Corrosion can occur on all types of metal surfaces and stainless steel, resulting in unsightly rust stains, especially in areas exposed to the heavy salt air.  Even anodized aluminum, which has been treated to be harder and less resistant to corrosion, is at risk due to microscopic fissures in which water and debris can seep.   

Efflorescence occurs when water penetrates a porous material, such as brick or limestone, and then it dissolves salt in construction materials (cement, mortar). As it evaporates, it leaves the salt on a surface. Often this salt reacts with air forming insoluble residue that can be removed simply by chemical cleaning.


Sponge & Squeegee- is best used on smooth surfaces like metal (stainless steel, aluminum) or marble tiles, which can be washed down, and the subsequently wiped clean. It works mostly for large tiles and is effective against dust and air pollution.

De-ionized water with brush cleaning is also efficient for smooth surfaces like metal or marble tiles. It helps to clean even small tiles without dirty run-off and hard water spots.  Also, a water-fed pole that can extend up to 60 ft can be utilized to reach remote areas.

Pressure Washing is most effective for rough surfaces comprised of non-porous materials, like stucco.  It should not be used on porous materials such as travertine, lime or brick, or any other type of siding such as metal tiles where seams or gaps are present because it can drive water inside the gaps causing dirty run-off and possible leaks. 

Metal polish is used mostly for cleaning stainless steel.  Applying specialized polishing product and consecutively rubbing it off can remove most superficial stains.

Brushing is a dry cleaning method used in conjunction with specific cleaning products to minimize possibility of water penetration on different types of porous materials.

Chemical treatment must be used on efflorescence, salt and difficult stains where it’s necessary to remove insoluble deposits.  For example, an acid would be used to remove efflorescence, after which an alkali would be applied to neutralize the acid.

The experts at RayAccess have experience with removing all types of staining and contamination and are well equipped to tackle even the most persistent exterior façade cleaning jobs.  At RayAccess, our main goal is to provide the most premiere service by combining our knowledge and expertise with the most current techniques in the field, to utilize time and resources efficiently, and leave you with a job well done at an affordable cost.

Call (323) 715-8267 or email at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. for a Free Estimation!

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Last Updated on Monday, 27 May 2013 23:15

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RayAccess Inc. Marina del Rey, CA

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